BASIC ELECTRONICS
Chapter 8
Digital Electronics

Note the circuit above has a problem.
If you would like to troubleshoot this fault.

Numerical Systems
JAVA Base Conversion Calculator

Boolean Operators

See Switch Logic Simulation

Multiplication (AND) Addition (OR) Negation (NOT)

0 · 0 = 0     0 + 0 = 0      Not 0 = 1

0 · 1 = 0     0 + 1 = 1      Not 1 = 0

1 · 0 = 0     1 + 0 = 1

1 · 1 = 1     1 + 1 = 1

Note that the AND operator "· " used in Boolean Multiplication operates in a identical manner to the multiplication operator used in arithmetic. The OR operator used in Boolean addition follows the same rules used in arithmetic addition except 1 + 1 = 1 rather than 2.

The NOT operator is often written as bar above the variable.

Electronic Logic Gates

The three Gates shown schematically below are all that is required to electronically implement the three Boolean operators (AND, OR, NOT) electronically. Logic gates can be made with vacuum tubes, relays, or discrete transistors, but today gates generally reside on Integrated Circuits. Logic Gates operate in a binary mode where each input and output is in either one of two states expressed as: 0/1, True/False, High/Low or On/Off.

Truth Tables for GATES

The relationship between inputs and outputs of Gates or the effect of Boolean operators can be shown with truth tables. The truth tables for the AND, OR, and NOT operators are shown below.

As in regular algebra there are mathematical rules that must be followed. The following basic laws are the same for both Boolean and ordinary algebra.

Commutative Law:
A + B = B + A

A(B + C)

Associative Law of multiplication
A(BC) = (AB)C

Distributive Law
A(B+C) = AB + AC

New 2011 Kit format: Preview Free Kit 8, Beta Version

Metaphor: Workbench with a Lab Manual and six Electronic Assemblies on it.
I selected Large Icon file viewing mode of Vista to create screen shot above.

The GIF animation illustrates use of kits.  Shows how kits are used. Note animation shows circuit schematics in manual. Simulations display digital circuit operation as one would actually see them using a logic analyzer.

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