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    About Basic Electronics   Reading List (Theory for each chapter)

Warning:  My WEB is not compatible with multitasking! Student must troubleshoot virtual circuits to benefit from my site.  This site aims at teaching the troubleshooting skills required by IT and electronics specialists.  This requires that you focus on simulated circuits.




TOC(Table of Contents)
Chapt.6A Chapt.6B
Chapt. 14
Chapt. 15
Chapt. 16
Chapt. 17
Chapt. 18

Meter Math

Directory of Select Electronic Sites 

Military Electronics
Sound Ranging

Electrical Energy



Attention Teachers!
Tips on low cost IT curriculum


About Basic Electronics  




Site Map




     Chapter 8
Digital Electronics
Switch to Tutorials (For those who need to study theory before they can attempt Virtual Troubleshooting.)

Troubleshooting Laboratory









Note the circuit above has a problem.
Click Here!
If you would like to troubleshoot this fault.

Numerical Systems 
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Boolean Operators

 See Switch Logic Simulation

Multiplication (AND) Addition (OR) Negation (NOT)

0 0 = 0     0 + 0 = 0      Not 0 = 1

0 1 = 0     0 + 1 = 1      Not 1 = 0

1 0 = 0     1 + 0 = 1

1 1 = 1     1 + 1 = 1

Note that the AND operator " " used in Boolean Multiplication operates in a identical manner to the multiplication operator used in arithmetic. The OR operator used in Boolean addition follows the same rules used in arithmetic addition except 1 + 1 = 1 rather than 2.

The NOT operator is often written as bar above the variable.

Electronic Logic Gates

The three Gates shown schematically below are all that is required to electronically implement the three Boolean operators (AND, OR, NOT) electronically. Logic gates can be made with vacuum tubes, relays, or discrete transistors, but today gates generally reside on Integrated Circuits. Logic Gates operate in a binary mode where each input and output is in either one of two states expressed as: 0/1, True/False, High/Low or On/Off.


Truth Tables for GATES

The relationship between inputs and outputs of Gates or the effect of Boolean operators can be shown with truth tables. The truth tables for the AND, OR, and NOT operators are shown below.





As in regular algebra there are mathematical rules that must be followed. The following basic laws are the same for both Boolean and ordinary algebra. 

Commutative Law:
A + B = B + A

Associative Law of Addition
A(B + C)

Associative Law of multiplication
A(BC) = (AB)C

Distributive Law
A(B+C) = AB + AC

Click Here! to troubleshoot a Comparator circuit problem.


New 2011 Kit format: Preview Free Kit 8, Beta Version
Consists of one Manual and six simulations.   Download Kit 8! 

Metaphor: Workbench with a Lab Manual and six Electronic Assemblies on it. 
I selected Large Icon file viewing mode of Vista to create screen shot above.

The GIF animation illustrates use of kits.  Shows how kits are used. Note animation shows circuit schematics in manual. Simulations display digital circuit operation as one would actually see them using a logic analyzer.



New Kit 8: Click Here for download
Logic Circuits
(New 2011 Format)



New 2014: Free electronics and IT vocational interactive training.  This tutorial uses all my e-books, Labs, and links to create full course curriculum.  Click here to start learning now!

Virtual Circuit Kits:
Get Kits 3 and 8 Beta versions Free : Click Here for download 
Kits Contain Resister Networks, Wheatstone Bridge, Ammeter, Capacitor Circuits, RLC(Resistor, Inductor, Capacitor Circuits, and Complex filters.  Lots of faulty circuits included for troubleshooting.

Also Included as part of our Free System Troubleshooting learning method are:

1. Meter Math (Click here)    Troubleshooting Numeric Systems.

2. JavaScript for scientific Calculations (Click here) I teach you how to program and perform electronic calculations simultaneously. 

3.  Electronic Concepts our  best free e-Book (Click here)  For engineers and technicians.


The Internet provides you with all the graphics and text about electronics that one can imagine.  My site and e-books are special, because they provide not only free books, but the books include FREE virtual circuits to observe and troubleshoot.  You get virtual circuits with out the expense of Brick and Mortar bread boards.  Industry does not need technicians that have simply read about electronics circuits, that is why electronics schools have laboratories in addition to classrooms.  I provide laboratory manuals combined with virtual circuits for you to troubleshoot. That makes this site and its free downloads different, if not uniquePlease bookmark my site  and download some or all of my free e-books and simulations. 

 Free e-book: Force Fields.  A E&M physics primer for electronics students. Download Zipped PDF file: Click Here! 

More Stuff

 Read "The Energy Matrix" eZine and learn about alternative energy.

  A Science and Technology Odyssey In Cyberspace-Time (Now with Sound, K12 site 

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