Semiconductors are sometimes referred to as computer chips or integrated circuits.
numerous electrical pathways which connect thousands or even millions of
transistors and other electronic components.
"The wafer growing process is similar to crystal growing
experiments that most of us did at school. A seed crystal of silicon is
immersed in a bath of molten silicon. It is slowly pulled out, and because
crystal growth occurs uniformly in all directions, the cross section is
circular and, as it is pulled, it forms a cylindrical ingot of pure silicon.
The ingot pulling process lasts for almost 24 hours and produces a cylinder of
diameter larger than is desired. The ingot is ground down to the required
diameter, and then is sliced into individual wafers." from Infrastructure