(1 - 3 )Voltage Regulator Fault1 thru Fault 3. (4)Schematic of Voltage Regulator (5)Response of good regulator circuit. (6 -12) Shows operation of a simple zerer diode voltage regulator. (13) Plot of currents verses load in simple zener diode regulator. (14) Same as 13 over longer load range . (15 ) Voltage response curve of zener diod regulator.
Below: Transistor Voltage Regulator
(1) Transistor Amplifier with NO FAULT. (2) Transistor Amplifier with FAULT 1. (3) Transistor Amplifier with FAULT 2. (4) Transistor Amplifier with FAULT 3.
Dynamic Load Simulator: The Dynamic Load Simulator not only varies the DC current but also introduces an AC component that simulates the ability of a voltage regulator to reduce the effect of a rapidly changing load on power supply. Observe last few frames of no fault operation (Animation 1) of the regulator that show the introduction of AC current at 50,60, or 1200 Hz , and note that approximately 90 mV of the AC generated across Rs of battery is reduced to about 20 mV at the output of the voltage regulator.
Note the phase shift between the signal at the base T1 and collector of T1 [ 139.06 - ( -40.96) = 180.02 degrees ] is an example of negative feedback. This also illustrates how ripple generated from AC power sources is reduced by the negative feedback of the voltage regulator.
Read pages 442, 699-710!